Volume 25, Number 3, September 2023


Background/Aims. Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects parental functioning which in turn has an impact on the off spring’s psychopathology. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the relationship between parental ADHD symptoms and parental behaviour, focusing on comparative evaluation of studies using self-report and behavioural observation. Method. A systematic literature search was conducted in three databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus) resulting 13 studies and 87 effect-sizes (N = 2018) for a meta[1]analysis. We used random effect model, assessed heterogeneity, and evaluated the possibility of publication bias. We conducted subgroup analyses by method of assessing parental behaviour (self-report/observation), valence of parental behaviour (positive/negative), domain of negative parental behaviour (inconsistent discipline, hostility, corporal punishment), and ADHD symptom clusters (inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, combined). Meta-regression analyses were conducted to explore the eff ect of children’s mean age, the ratio of mothers in the parent sample, and the ratio of boys and ADHD diagnosis in the children’s sample. Results. The mean effect size of the association of self-reported parental behaviour and ADHD symptoms was small but significant, higher levels of parental ADHD symptoms were related to higher levels of negative and lower levels of positive parental behaviour. The analysis did not suggest a publication bias. The effect was robust across ADHD symptom clusters. Children’s mean age, the ratio of mothers in the parent sample, and the ratio of boys and ADHD diagnosis in the children’s sample did not have a significant effect. On the other hand, behavioural observation of parental behavior was not related to parental ADHD symptoms. Conclusion. Our results underlie the importance of methodology of assessing parental behaviour. Multi-method and multi-informant assessment in parenting research is warranted.

Keywords: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, parenting, parenting behaviour, meta-analysis, self-report, behavioural observation

The role of psychological factors in the development and treatment of infertility

Georgina Szabó, Judit Szigeti F., Miklós Sipos, Szabolcs Várbíró, Xénia Gonda 


Infertility can be caused by several factors, thus the effective treatment of infertility is a complex and multidisciplinary task. While psychological support is an essential part of infertility treatment, there is growing evidence that the role of psychological factors is much greater, as personality and psychological factors have a significant impact on the development, long-term course, and treatment success of several somatic diseases. Exploring the possible mechanisms through which these psychological factors directly or indirectly contribute to infertility and the success of infertility interventions could help identify high-risk patient groups and tailor treatment to the patient, which may increase the chances of successful pregnancy and live birth in women undergoing assisted reproductive treatment. In this review we aim to summarize current knowledge and research findings on the relationship between psychological factors and infertility treatments, including clinical consequences and implications for future research.

Keywords: infertility, assisted reproduction, IVF, adherence, personality, temperaments, affective temperaments, TEMPS-A, stress, depression

Problematic internet use during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence data

Julius Burkauskas, Luca Pellegrini, Kristina Mozuraityte, Julija Gecaite-Stonciene, Dorottya Hidvégi, Zsolt Demetrovics, Naomi A. Fineberg


PubMed/MEDLINE, EBSCOhost/PsycINFO, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, GSK Clinical Study Register, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases was conducted. Research was completed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols 2015 checklist. Results: A total of 22 publications were identified, fulfilling inclusion criteria from a total of 595 studies. The analysis revealed that the prevalence of PIU during the COVID-19 pandemic period was 25%, however applying a stringent threshold for the PIU, resulted in a much lower prevalence of 7.9%. Conclusion: The PIU prevalence rate during the COVID-19 pandemic in the general population was 7.9%. Measuring the prevalence of PIU remains complicated due to the large methodological and cultural diversity that exists, so global prevalence estimates of PIU vary substantially. More methodologically sound research on psychodiagnostic assessment and cultural variances is required.

(Neuropsychopharmacol Hung 2023; 25(3): 131–141)

Keywords: COVID-19; internet addiction; problematic usage of the internet; prevalence; systematic review, meta-analysis Systematic review registration: PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021284619.


In recent years, the question of how we can grasp the ability to plan future events has come to the forefront in light of the retrieval of personal memories from the past. If episodic memory is responsible for envisioning future events, there appears to be an overlap between autobiographical memory and imagining the future. The aim of this current narrative literature review is to present existing theories and research findings, thereby facilitating the development of an organizational framework necessary for the unified investigation of future thinking. This article introduces the neural network processes underlying episodic future thinking, with particular emphasis on the significance of the hippocampus. It outlines the constructive episodic simulation hypothesis, suggesting that episodic memory and episodic future thinking largely rely on similar neural substrates and assumes that a primary function of the episodic memory system is to flexibly reorganize units of individual, contextual memories to simulate possible future events for the individual. The article presents research results related to memory deficits, as it can be presumed that impairment of autobiographical memory in psychiatric disorders also results in impaired episodic future thinking. Future-oriented thoughts serve various functions, such as decision-making, action planning, and emotional regulation. The article also delves into schema theories, as when generating episodic future thoughts, people often activate their general knowledge about their personal future before a specific event occurs. Future thinking is crucial for well-being, goal attainment, aging, optimism, and understanding clinical conditions. How people think about the future can influence their decisions. The elucidation of emotionally future[1]oriented thoughts, autobiographical knowledge structures, and life-history schemas plays a crucial role in the construction of episodic future thinking. Understanding the role of memory in simulating future events can be important in comprehending the constructive nature of memory and, in general, the functioning of memory systems in diseases, thereby contributing to the specific selection of treatments for these conditions.

Keywords: episodic memory, semantic memory, episodic future thinking, hippocampus, future-oriented cognition, emotional future-oriented thoughts, personal goals