Volume 25 Issue 2, June 2023

Editoral in Hungarian

Gábor Faludi 


Background: The number of patients with cancer is increasing rapidly: in only one year, in 2020 19.3 million new cases were registered and as many as 10 million deaths occurred due to tumours worldwide. Shame and self-blame for developing cancer deteriorate patients’ quality of life and correlate significantly with poor adaptation and physical health, consequently may be risk factors in the final negative outcome. It is proven that stigmatisation may cause torturing emotional symptoms like shame leading to depressive symptoms, which, in turn, may deteriorate the patient’s capacity to cope and her well-being, thus growing the risk of mortality. For all the above, a high level of self-compassion may be a potential solution. Numerous studies have already proven that self-compassion may signifi cantly decrease the level of shame, depression, frustration as well as the perception of being stigmatised while resulting in a measurably better quality of life. The purpose of the investigation was to point out the relationship between shame, stigmatisation, depression on the one hand, and selfcompassion on the other while providing support for the eff ectiveness of self-compassionbased interventions among female breast cancer patients. Methods: The present study is part of the fi rst phase of a translational research, in other words it is part of a basic research already carried out. This cross-sectional study collected data using online questionnaires based on self-reports with female breast cancer patients aged between 18 and 45, who had been diagnosed in the past two years and did not present with distant metastases (n=79, mean age: 39.05 years, SD= 7.37). To measure constructs standardised scales were applied including the Experience of Shame Scale (ESS), the Stigma Scale for Chronic Illnesses 8-item version (SSCI8), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS). The research hypotheses were tested by hierarchic regression, correlation, and mediation analyses. Results: Stigmatisation shows a positive and strong (r = 0.56, p < 0.01) relationship with physical shame while self-compassion has a negative and strong relationship with the same (r = 0.71, p < 0.01). Hierarchical regression revealed that self-compassion was the only predictive factor in female breast cancer patients regarding physical shame (β = – 0.09, p < 0.001) after controlling for age, marital status, exposure to operation, stigmatisation, and depression. According to mediation models a higher level of stigmatisation may result in a more expressed feeling of shame and depression through a lower level of self-compassion. We found a full mediation between shame and depression, which means that shame causes a higher level of depression entirely indirectly, through a decrease in self-compassion. Conclusions: The results of this work highlight the expected eff ectiveness of developing self-compassion in terms of alleviating shame, stigmatisation, and depression, thus contributing to a better quality of life among cancer patients. The main purpose of the translational research that was the basis of the present study was to develop a complex cognitive therapeutic programme that would, in a gap-fi lling way, off er oncological patients an eff ective psychological intervention supported by investigation. The results of the present study prove beyond doubt the rationale of the programme and involve the basic elaboration of a significant psycho-oncological practice.

Keywords: breast cancer, self-compassion, adherence, depression, stigma, body shame


Background/Objective. The COVID-19 pandemic that has started in 2019 has led to an increase in time spent online and has raised awareness of the benefi ts and risks of social media use. Previous research highlights that it is not intensity (time) but addictive use that is associated with higher levels of attention defi cit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. No such comparative study was found on sleep quality. In our study we investigated the correlation between problematic social media use, quality of sleep and the level of ADHD symptoms among young people, on a non-clinical sample during the third wave of the epidemic. Method. Our online questionnaire, which contained, among others, the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS), the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS), and the self-report version of the SWAN scale (Strength and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behavior) was completed by 139 people (mean age 21.37 years, standard deviation 2.68 years, range: 15-27). We also asked about the intensity of social media use. Results. Significant differences were found in the intensity of social media use during online (M=3.12; SD=1.08) versus face-to-face education (M=2.47; SD=0.78) (t(73)=6.01; p<0.001; d=0.70). ADHD symptom levels were not related to the intensity of social media use but showed a signifi cant positive correlation with problematic use (r=0.32; p<0.001). Similarly, the intensity of social media use showed no correlation with the quality of sleep however, problematic use was associated with poorer sleep quality (r=0.27; p=0.002). In our mediator analysis, problematic use was associated with higher levels of ADHD symptoms both directly (c’=-0.61; p=0.02) and indirectly (ab=-0.36; 95% CI: -0.60 – -0.10) through poorer sleep quality (F(1,120)=21.94; p<0.001; R2=0.27). Discussion. Our results support that it is not the intensity rather the problematic use that is an important factor in social media use. Our results suggest that problematic use may lead, not only directly but also through sleep quality to worsening ADHD symptoms.

Keywords: attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, social media, sleep


The beneficial effects of yoga have been researched for decades, and in many countries it is also used in health care to maintain physical and mental health. Its effectiveness in the treatment of stress and anxiety, as well as in achieving a relaxed state, is supported by numerous studies. In the present research, our aim was to investigate the direct and subclinical effects of yoga on participants practicing it at least 10 minutes a day for two weeks. 25 average population, healthy participants were included between the ages of 18 and 30. We used the Smith Relaxation States Inventory (SRSI3) and its disposition-measuring version (SRSI3d), which examine 19 relaxation states (R-states) presumably related to relaxation, divided into 4 categories: basic relaxation, mindfulness, positive energy and transcendence. During the statistical analyses, the test values measured at the beginning of the research, before the first practice, were compared with the values taken directly after the last practice using the Wilcoxon test. Bonferroni correction was used to correct the fi rst-order error that increases when testing several hypotheses simultaneously. Immediately after practicing yoga, the participants were significantly more relaxed (M0=2.74, M1=4.24, p<0.0001), experienced more awareness (M0=2.71, M1=2.89, p<0.0001) and positive energy (M0=3.88, M1=4.81, p<0.0001) and also in the long term they experienced significantly more relaxation (M0=3.12, M1=3.94, p<0.0001), awareness (M0=3.41, M1=4.40, p<.0001), positive energy (M0=4.39, M1=5.14, p<0.001) and transcendence (M0=3.23, M1=4.05, p=0.001). Based on our results, yoga can be an effective additional tool in maintaining and improving health, but also in improving the condition and quality of life of mental and somatic patients.

Keywords: yoga, relaxation, positive energy, SRSI


The immunological-inflammatory theory of major depressive disorder originated in the 1980s, yet it has become the focus of mainstream research today. Nevertheless, the results are controversial: postmortem immunohistochemical detection of central neuronal and glial markers has not led to a clear conclusion, the relationship with the therapeutic response is questionable, and the correlation between peripheral and central markers is poor. A possible solution is detecting infl ammatory changes in vivo by positron emission tomography (PET) (e.g., TSPO binding). The importance of this method lies in its direct correlation with clinical changes and in the monitoring of the therapeutic response and its neurological correlates. Of particular importance is the link with cognitive symptoms and cognitive-behavioral therapy. In the present paper, we will highlight some critical results on this issue, showing that the presumed variation in microglia is associated with the cognitive symptoms accompanying mood disorders and provides an appropriate tool for the follow-up of clinical responses to cognitive therapy. We will also address the limitations of currently available methods (e.g., PET ligands’ binding specifi city, spatial resolution problems, and the possibility of monitoring immunological changes in vivo).

Keywords: major depressive disorder, cognitive impairment, microglia, infl ammation, PET