Volume 26, Number 1, March 2024

Editorial in Hungarian

Gábor Faludi


Introduction: Intolerance of uncertainty is the tendency to react negatively to an uncertain situation, regardless of the probability of the occurrence of the event and its consequences. Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) can also be conceptualized as a personality trait that is prominent in many anxiety and rumination-related pathologies. A growing body of research highlights its key role in understanding anxiety disorders.

Method: The aim of present study was to investigate the dimensionality, validity and reliability of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale in a large non-clinical sample (N = 1747). Former was analysed by confirmatory factor analysis, the validity by correlation with the Perceived Stress Scale. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and test-retest analysis.

Results: Confirmatory factor analysis failed to confirm the hypothesized two-factor structure (CFI = 0.907; TLI = 0.885; RMSEA = 0.103 [90% CI = 0.096-0.110]; SRMR = 0.071). However, the exploratory factor analysis identified the same two factors as in the original study: “Prospective” and “Inhibitory”. The scale showed excellent internal reliability (α = 0.897) and test-retest reliability. There was moderate correlation with the Perceived Stress Scale (r = 0.438).

Conclusion: Based on the results, the Hungarian version of the BTS-12 is a valid and reliable measurement tool. However, before its use in a Hungarian sample, its psychometric properties need to be confirmed by further studies on a large sample. In the future, the questionnaire will be useful in measuring intolerance of uncertainty and may be useful in identifying susceptibility to anxiety disorders.

Keywords: intolerance of uncertainty, perceived stress, questionnaire adaptation, Hungarian population


Objective: The literature suggests that mentalizing deficits, insecure attachment, and higher levels of perceived stress are closely linked, however, the association between these constructs has not yet been investigated among Hungarian adults. In our study, we investigated the relationship between mentalization, attachment and perceived stress in a non-clinical adult sample.

Methods: In our study, 255 adults completed the Reflective Functioning Questionnaire (RFQ-R-7), the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire (ECR-R-HU) and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) after informed consent. In our analysis, we tested two simple mediation models. The independent variables differed in the two analyses, in the first one we used the attachment anxiety subscale, while in the second one, we used the attachment avoidance subscale of the ECR-R-HU questionnaire. In both of our models, the perceived stress (PSS) was the dependent variable, while hypomentalization was the mediator (RFQ7).

Results: The models were found to be significant. The direct path between attachment anxiety and perceived stress (c’ = 0.11, p < .001, β = 0.29) and indirect path through hypomentalizig also proved to be significant (∑ab = 0.04 [0.02 – 0.06], β = 0.10). The direct path between attachment avoidance and perceived stress was significant (c’ = 0.05, p = 0.04, β = 0.12), however, the indirect path between attachment avoidance and perceived stress was not significant (∑ab = -0.004 [-0.02 – 0.01], β = -0.01).

Conclusions: Our results – taking our limitations into account – suggest that hypomentalization has a mediational effect on the relationship between attachment anxiety and perceived stress, while attachment avoidance is directly related to perceived stress. Our results have important practical implications for prevention and intervention.

Keywords: mentalizing, attachment, stress, perceived stress, anxiety


Background/Objectives: David P. Bernstein’s model of personal strengths was born out of the interaction of schema theory and positive psychology. According to Bernstein, the strengths of a healthy adult self can be described along four dimensions: self-directedness, self-regulation, connectedness, and transcendence. Previous research has shown that attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is associated with higher levels of perceived stress, but the role of personal strengths in this context has not yet been investigated. The aim of our study was to explore the role of Bernstein’s strength dimensions in the relationship between adult ADHD symptoms and perceived stress, using a dimensional approach in a non-clinical sample.

Method: Our online questionnaire, which included the Bernstein Strengths Scale (BSS), the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), and a shortened version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS4), was completed by 100 adults (mean age 38.25 years, standard deviation 5.73 years) after informed consent.

Results: In the bivariate analysis, the ASRS showed a significant negative association with the BSS dimensions, with a large effect size for self-regulation and a medium effect size for the other dimensions. On the other hand, the PSS4 scale showed significant negative correlations with all four strength dimensions, with effect sizes large for self-direction and self-regulation and medium for the connection and transcendence dimensions. Personal strengths mediated the relationship between ADHD symptoms and perceived stress.

Discussion: Our results suggest that ADHD symptoms may be associated with a deficit in personal strengths, which may contribute to negative outcomes. Psychotherapeutic interventions that support the recognition, cultivation and mobilization of strengths may be useful in the treatment of adults diagnosed with ADHD.

Keywords: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, adult, perceived stress, personal strengths


Objective: We investigated the relationship between mentalisation, attachment and resilience in an adult sample.

Method: 225 people completed the Reflective Function Questionnaire (RFQ-H), the Experiences in Close Relationships Questionnaire (ECR-R-HU), and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Questionnaire (CD-RISC) in our non-clinical study after informed consent. The analysis was controlled for gender of the respondents.

Results: The models were found to be significant in the mediator analysis. The path between attachment total score and hypomentalisation was significant (a=2.88, p<0.01, β=0.32). The direct path between attachment total score and resilience was found to be significant (c’=-2.00, p<0.001, β=-0.28). The relationship between hypomentalisation and resilience was also significant (b=-0.30, p<0.01, β=-0.38). The indirect pathway between attachment and resilience through hypomentalisation was found to be significant (∑ab=-0.87 [-1.41 – -0.40], β = 0.12). Thus, a high total attachment score through higher levels of hypomentalisation predicts lower resilience. Based on the standardized regression coefficients, hypomentalisation was the strongest predictor of resilience, and attachment was more strongly associated with resilience via direct than indirect means via hypomentalisation.

Conclusions: Our results suggest – considering the limitations of our research – that attachment is related to resilience through mentalisation, and that mentalisation itself is a strong predictor of resilience. The practical implication of our results is that the use of mentalisation-based methods may be worth considering for individuals with lower levels of resilience.

Keywords: mentalisation, reflective function, hypomentalisation, attachment, insecure attachment, resilience

Looking for borderline personality disorder

Brigitta Szabó, Mónika Miklósi


Aims: This paper aims to describe Roger Mulder’s presentation on borderline personality disorder organized by the 23rd World Congress of Psychiatry, supplemented with relevant research results.

Methods: Mulder presents the diagnostic criteria of borderline personality disorder, its comorbidity, therapeutic considerations and the phenomenon of stigmatization related to the disorder.

Results: According to Mulder, the diagnostic criteria of borderline personality disorder are vague and it shows a very high comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders. Mulder draws attention to the fact that it was not possible to identify a borderline factor in previous research because the borderline symptoms disappeared during the analysis in a general (“g”) personality disorder factor. According to Mulder, there is no specific psychotherapy that is effective only in borderline personality disorder, and the pharmacological treatment has also not proven to be effective in treating the core symptoms of borderline personality disorder. According to Mulder, the stigma associated with the diagnosis of borderline personality disorder hinders the recognition and treatment of other psychiatric or somatic difficulties of patients.

Conclusion: according to Mulder, based on modern scientific standards, borderline personality disorder has no place in the classification, however, specialists still insist on the diagnosis.


Keywords: borderline personality disorder, personality disorders, classification, diagnosis