Volume 24, Issue 2, June 2022

Editoral in Hungarian

Gabor Faludi

The relationship between therapeutic adherence and personality

Georgina Szabo, Bernadett Szita, Michele Fornaro, Peter Dome, Szabolcs Varbíro and Xenia Gonda


Inadequate adherence to long-term therapies significantly affects the course and outcome of the disease, and therefore poses a serious threat to both the effectiveness and success of treatment and the long-term well-being of patients. Therapeutic adherence is an extremely complex process, with a number of risk and protective factors identified, many of which underlie the psychological characteristics of the patient. A number of medication adherence models have been developed to take into account the psychological characteristics of patients, and recent research has examined the relationship between different personality models and adherence to therapeutic recommendations. In this review we aim to summarize current knowledge, adherence models, research findings on the relationship between personality and adherence, including implications for future research.

Keywords: adherence, personality, temperaments, EPQ, BFQ, TCI, affective temperaments, TEMPS-A


Background and Aim: Spiritual health (SH), as the guiding force that maintains equilibrium in three dimensions of health – physical, mental, and social – can significantly contribute to the quality of life in humans. Therefore, the present study was to reflect on the levels of SH among Iranian university students. Materials and Methods: This study was fulfilled, employing a systematic review and meta-analysis, from November to December 2020. All the relevant articles, focusing on SH assessment in Iranian university students, published in seven valid databases between 2012 and 2020 were accordingly collected and evaluated. Finally, 20 articles were selected and analyzed using the Stata software. Results: A total of 20 studies conducted in Iran based on a sample size of 4805 individuals was found during the time period of 2012 and 2021. Spiritual Health in Iranian University Students was estimated to be 80.50 (95% CI, 73.56% – 87.44%). Conclusion: Considering the synthesis of the reviewed articles, SH was reported to be at high levels in nearly all Iranian university students, as expected in the Iranian-Islamic society.

(Neuropsychopharmacol Hung 2022; 24(2): 78–84)

Keywords: Spiritual Health, Student, Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis


Objectives: Approval/disapproval of substance use behavior might have a role in the development and persistence of substance use. However, less is known about the measurement function of disapproval of using different types of psychoactive substances. By using item response analyses, the present study aimed to examine the latent structure as well as item-level measurement properties of the construct of substance use disapproval. Methods: Nationally representative adult samples derived from the National Survey on Addiction Problems in Hungary from 2015 (N=2274) and 2019 (N=1385) were used in the present study. Dichotomous items measured the disapproval of eleven forms of substance use, such as smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol and different forms of illicit drug use. Results: A unidimensional measurement model of substance use disapproval was supported. Item response analyses indicated that disapproval of alcohol use and cigarette smoking had moderate discrimination capacity and were located at moderately low-moderately high levels of the substance use disapproval continuum, whereas illicit substance use forms had high-very high discrimination capacities and were ranged at low-very low levels of the disapproval spectrum. Disapproval of experimenting with heroin, ecstasy and designer stimulants had the highest information capacity in 2015, whereas in 2019 disapproval of experimenting with synthetic cannabinoids and experimenting with and using occasionally cannabis were the most informative. Conclusions: Less permissive attitudes were shown for all forms of illicit drug use compared to alcohol and cigarette use. Discrimination and difficulty levels of disapproval of substance use might be associated with legal status of psychoactive substances.

(Neuropsychopharmacol Hung 2022; 24(2): 85–94)

Keywords: attitudes, disapproval, item response theory (IRT), measurement, substance use


The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant psychological impact on the mental state of both healthy and psychiatric patients. The authors involved 34 obsessive-compulsive patients in their study. The patient group included both patients with and without symptoms of contamination, patients with and without COVID-19 infection, and patients with and without continuous, available therapy. Changes in general condition as a result of the pandemic that had existed for nearly two years, adherence to health standards, and changes in compulsive symptoms were assessed. The results show that the non-specific stress effect of the pandemic significantly less affected those patients who are under care compared to those who did not receive therapy. However, the characteristics of the symptomatic picture and the fact of COVID infection did not significantly affect the general condition of the patients, their adherence to the health regulations, and the change in compulsive symptoms. The main finding of the study is that psychiatric, psychotherapeutic patient follow-up is the most important factor in the prevention of deterioration, and neither the symptomatic dimension (symptomatic subgroup) nor COVID infection played a significant role. The results support that in such an acute and persistent stress situation as a pandemic, the continuous availability of professional help and the appropriate therapeutic relationship is one of the most important protective factors in relapse prevention.

 Keywords: obsessive-compulsive disorder, COVID-19 pandemic, patient follow-up